A New Finding Points to a Different Gravity Theory

New Discovery Indicates A Finding Points to a Different Gravity Theory

While passing through the Fornax galaxy cluster, the dwarf galaxy NGC1427A experiences perturbations that are not feasible if the galaxy were encircled by a dense and wide dark matter halo, as needed by conventional cosmology. Source: ESO

Dwarf galaxies are tiny, inconspicuous galaxies that are typically discovered in or nearby larger galaxies or galaxy clusters. They might thus be affected by the gravitational forces of their larger counterparts.

Elena Asencio, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Bonn and the story’s lead author, said, “We present a unique technique of verifying the standard model based on how much dwarf galaxies are disrupted by gravitational tides’ from surrounding larger galaxies.

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A New Finding Suggestions a Different Gravity Theory TOPICS:
University Of BonnGalaxyGravityPopularEuropean Southern Observatory
College of St. Andrews
16th October 2022 by UNIVERSITY OF BONN

Galaxy NGC1427A, a dwarf
While passing through the Fornax galaxy cluster, the dwarf galaxy NGC1427A experiences perturbations that are not feasible if the galaxy were encircled by a dense and wide dark matter halo, as needed by conventional cosmology. Source: ESO

A alternative gravity hypothesis is suggested by disturbances in the dwarf galaxies of one of Earth’s nearest galaxy clusters.
Dwarf galaxies are tiny, inconspicuous galaxies that are typically discovered in or nearby larger galaxies or galaxy clusters. They might thus be affected by the gravitational forces of their larger counterparts.

Elena Asencio, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Bonn and the story’s lead author, said, “We present a unique technique of verifying the standard model based on how much dwarf galaxies are disrupted by gravitational tides’ from surrounding larger galaxies.

When one body’s gravity pulls differentially on different parts of another body, tides result. These are similar to Earth’s tides, which appear when the moon pulls harder on the side of the planet that faces the moon.

New Discovery Indicates A Finding Points to a Different Gravity Theory

A large number of dwarf galaxies reside in the Fornax Cluster. Numerous of these dwarfs appear to be twisted, as though the cluster environment has disturbed them, according to recent findings. According to the Standard Model, such fluctuations in the Fornax dwarfs are not anticipated, according to Pavel Kroupa, professor at the Universities of Bonn and Prague’s Charles University. This is because the dark matter halos of these dwarfs should partially protect them from floods created by the cluster, according to the standard model.

The dwarfs’ expected level of disturbance was analysed by the researchers. This disturbance is based on the dwarfs’ intrinsic characteristics and separation from the gravitationally strong cluster centre. Large galaxies with low star masses are more susceptible to disruption or destruction, as are galaxies close to the cluster core. They compared the results to the degree of disruption visible in images captured by the VLT Survey Telescope of the European Southern Observatory.

The comparison revealed that the Fornax dwarfs should already be annihilated by the gravitational pull of the cluster centre even if the tides it creates on a dwarf are 64 times smaller than the dwarf’s own self-gravity, according to Elena Asencio. This is not only illogical, but it also goes against the findings of earlier research, according to which the amount of outside power required to perturb a dwarf galaxy is comparable to the dwarf’s own gravity.

The authors deduced from this that the observed morphologies of the Fornax dwarfs cannot be self-consistently explained by the mainstream paradigm. They carried out the investigation once more using Milgrom dynamics (MOND). The MOND theory suggests a correction to Newtonian dynamics via which gravity experiences an increase in the regime of low accelerations, rather than assuming dark matter halos surrounding galaxies.

Stunning Hubble Space Telescope Photograph Displays a Dazzling Array of Stars
The interaction of two doomed stars has created this spectacular ring adorned with bright clumps of gas — a diamond necklace of cosmic proportions. Fittingly known as the Necklace Nebula, this planetary nebula is located 15 000 light-years away from Earth in the small, dim constellation of Sagitta (The Arrow). The Necklace Nebula — which also goes by the less glamorous name of PN G054.2-03.4 — was produced by a pair of tightly orbiting Sun-like stars. Roughly 10 000 years ago, one of the aging stars expanded and engulfed its smaller companion, creating something astronomers call a “common envelope”. The smaller star continued to orbit inside its larger companion, increasing the bloated giant’s rotation rate until large parts of it spun outwards into space. This escaping ring of debris formed the Necklace Nebula, with particularly dense clumps of gas forming the bright “diamonds” around the ring. The pair of stars which created the Necklace Nebula remain so close together — separated by only a few million kilometres — that they appear as a single bright dot in the centre of this image. Despite their close encounter the stars are still furiously whirling around each other, completing an orbit in just over a day.  The Necklace Nebula was featured in a previously released Hubble image, but now this new image has been created by applying advanced processing techniques, making for a new and improved view of this intriguing object. The composite image includes several exposures from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3.

Our results show a remarkable agreement between observations and the MOND expectations for the level of disturbance of the Fornax dwarfs, said Dr. Indranil Banik from the University of St. Andrews. “We were not sure that the dwarf galaxies would be able to survive the extreme environment of a galaxy cluster in MOND, due to the absence of protective dark matter halos in this model,” he added.

The study’s co-authors, Aku Venhola from the University of Oulu in Finland and Steffen Mieske from the European Southern Observatory, expressed their excitement about the results, saying, “It is encouraging to see that the data we obtained with the VLT survey telescope allowed such a thorough test of cosmological models.”

This is not the first time a study investigating the impact of dark matter on the dynamics and evolution of galaxies came to the conclusion that observations are best explained when dark matter is not present in the vicinity of the galaxies. Every year, there are more articles that demonstrate how observations and the dark matter paradigm are incompatible. It is time to start putting more money into more viable ideas, according to Pavel Kroupa of the University of Bonn’s Transdisciplinary Research Areas “Modelling” and “Matter.”

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